sound change - How complex contour tones get in languages

So I have seen a few tonal languages, such as Thai, Mandarin Chinese, and Cantonese:I'm not too familiar with which other languages have tonal features. But I'm wondering if there are any alternatives to these tonal features:Rising tones (Mandarin 2nd tone)Falling tones (Mandarin 4th tone)Constant tones (Mandarin 1st tone)Rise then fall (seems like Thai's falling tone)Fall then rise (Mandarin 3rd tone)Wondering if there are any other patterns to contour-based tonal systems, such as (F = Fall, R = Rise, C = constant):FRFRFRRCRFCFRCFFCRRFRF...Als...Read more

sound change - How does the Icelandic word "finna" come from Proto-Germanic "finþanan"?

finna From Old Norse finna, from Proto-Germanic *finþanan.finþanan From Proto-Indo-European *pent-, *penth- (“to go, pass; path, bridge”). Cognate with Latin pons (“bridge”), Old Indian pánthā (“way, path”). Related also to Old High German fendo, fendeo (“pedestrian, footsoldier”), Old Saxon fāþi (“walking”), Old English fēþe (“locomotion, walking, gait, pace”) Descendants Old English: findan Scots: find, fynd English: find Old Saxon: findan Old Dutch: *findan Dutch: vinden Afrikaans: vind Old High German: findan Middle High G...Read more

sound change - Why does the Old Norse word "maðr" include "ð", while its cognate E "man" doesn't?

maðr From Proto-Germanic *mann-, whence also Old English mann, Old High German man.mann- Descendants Old English: mann, man; manna English: man Old Frisian: man, mon West Frisian: man Old Saxon: man Old Dutch: man Dutch: man, men Afrikaans: man Old High German: man German: Mann, man Old Norse: maðr Icelandic: maður Faroese: maður Norwegian: mann Old Swedish: maþer, mander, man Swedish: man Old Danish: man Danish: mand Gothic: (manna)Old Norse must have undergone some kind of sound change, otherwise the "d" would be remained...Read more

sound change - What impact does it bring if the tone values of a tone language are generally lowered?

Tones in a tone language have values marked by 1 to 5. If a sound change happens by which tone values become lowered in some cases, e.g. the standard value of a tone in Mandarin is 214, while the second phase, raising to a high pitch, is often dropped and even always dropped in Taiwan Mandarin and the value becomes thus 21. The value of another tone seems lowered from 35 to 23.Tone system can be divided into two types: register tone system and contour tone system. Mandarin belongs to the latter one.Since in the register system the tones are dis...Read more