congress - What determines the identify of "the minority party" leadership if there are more than two parties?

In the US Congress, there are leadership positions held in both majority and minority parties (e.g. the "majority leader" or "minority whip"). In practice, there are almost always two parties, so the "minority" party is simply the one that isn't the majority party. At present, this means either the Republican or Democrat party is the minority.However, there are periods of time during which a third party grows in influence (typically leading to one of the two dominant parties dying off), and even at present there are a number of "independent" ca...Read more

parties - Does the greek Syriza party have another political program than "renegotiate the debt"?

The newspaper clam that Syriza is a "far left" party and that it wants to renegotiate the greek government's debt.I don't understand how that makes them far left by any extension of mind. Actually considering what happened to Greece their claims aren't any surprise. Normally far left parties have a much wider political program such as :Reinvent a new economical systemSupports negative grothForbid the usage of GDP as an indicator of a country's productivenessBan speculationTry to ciminalize bosses of large companiesetc...It really suprises me t...Read more

parties - Why does Singapore's PAP win almost all elections?

In Democracy, we have the median voter theorem. Hence, we expect elections to be won 50% of the time (in case winners take all).The issue is not whose party is better. The issue is that when someone wants to rise or lower tax, for example, the one that gets the most votes are the one that can capture the median voters.So how come PAP wins 90% of the votes in all elections?This says it may be due to intimidation. But that leads to another problem. Why would a party that can win 90% votes bother to intimidate other parties?...Read more

Secessionist / Regionalist political parties in Germany

In the UK, there are parties represented in regional and the national parliament calling for either the secession of, or at least greater autonomy for their nations from the UK (e.g. SNP, Plaid Cymru, etc.) In Spain I believe something like 40-60% of parliamentary seats in Catalonia and the Basque country are regularly won by parties similarly calling for secession / greater autonomy for those lands. I know of regional autonomy movements which have achieved political representation in Italy too, and I believe at least some of the mainstream pol...Read more

parties - Is there a correlation between libertarianism and IQ?

I found this question in quorahttps://www.quora.com/Why-does-it-seem-like-many-haskellers-are-libertarianIt seems that some programmers are libertarians. You can see there. High level programmers tend to be libertarians.This questions answer that more clearlyhttps://www.quora.com/It-seems-like-many-computer-scientists-and-programmers-are-either-libertarians-or-anarchists-or-something-along-those-lines-Is-there-something-about-the-field-that-attracts-people-who-are-naturally-inclined-to-suchHigh level programmers of course have high IQ. I wonder...Read more

parties - How have greater than two party systems functioned in the past?

An earlier question (Why can't voting be fair if there are more than two alternatives?) got me thinking. Are there any examples of governments where more than 2 parties have had major roles in the government for a decent amount of time (a half century say)? And, if so, what (if any) impact has this had on the government and it's people.The question I reference deals more with the theoretical fairness of having more than two parties, I'm more curious about the practice and its implications....Read more

political theory - King secretly funds left and right wing parties to stay in power. What's this called?

Some time ago, I read about a concept called the dialectic method of reigning (or similar). Imagine there is a monarch reigning over an absolutist country. A revolution is going on, and he fears loosing his power. A parlament is formed, and several political parties spring up. What does the monarch do? According to this dialectical method, instead of aligning with one party, he should secretly give support to both left and right wing parties. Cleverly using his connections and his money, he can direct the whole of the state. E.g. if the politic...Read more

parties - Why do we need static coalitions?

By the German constitution, every member of parliament has to adhere to their conscience only. In reality, the parties on the parliament usually vote unanimously for some bill. The parties that are part of the coalition vote in support of the bill, the other parties against it.To me, this does not make much sense. We have hundreds of members in the parliament in order to represent the nuances of society. If they only adhere to their party, then we could just have a couple of people from each party in the parliament and give them a weight factor...Read more

parties - Aren't, in practice, the executive and legislative powers oftentimes nearly unified?

As far as I'm aware, according to the theory of separation of powers, which is considered one of the foundations of democracy, prescribes the three government powers: executive, legislative, judiciary to be separated from each other and not wielded by the same person(s).However, I can't shake off the feeling that in parliamentary democracies this is, in fact, fiction. Yes - there is a government that is theoretically separate from the parliament. However, in practice:The political party (or coalition of parties) that has won the elections is us...Read more

Do European Parliamentary leaders have greater standing in their own parties than American Presidential candidates?

Donald Trump is the Republican Presidential candidate in the U.S., but he is not the head of the Republican Party (Paul Ryan is). And if he loses the election, he will (presumably) go off into the sunset and just become "another" party member. (At least that was the case with Mitt Romney.)On the other hand, European Parliamentary leaders like Germany's Angela Merkel or the UK's Theresa May appear to be more entrenched in their party's leadership, meaning that they may remain party leaders even if they lose an election. Is this, in fact, true, a...Read more

parties - Are single-member legislative districts a guarantee for two party systems?

Given that all countries that rely on a two-party system seem to have single-member legislative districts. I was wondering whether this in essence guarantees two party systems or whether this statement would not hold true.This should not be considered a duplicate to What factors influence the number of political parties? because this asks which factors influence the number in general while this is very specific whether a given factor guarantees a certain result....Read more

campaigning - Is basic information of contracts between political parties and private companies public information?

This article argues about possible connection between Cambridge Analytica and the main Romanian party in power: Rupert Wolfe Murray, a British consultant, says that Cambridge Analytica, through senior official Mark Turnbull, approached him before Romania’s 2016 parliamentary elections to work for the Social Democratic Party (PSD), ABC News reports. Wolfe Murray said that he declined the offer because he did not want to work for political parties. It is unclear whether the data analytics company actually played a role in the Romanian ...Read more