complements - How to understand the "of somebody" part

It is recounted of Thomas Carlyle that when he heard of the illness of his friend, Henry Taylor, he went off immediately to visit him, carrying with him in his pocket what remained of a bottle of medicine formerly prescribed for an indisposition of Mrs. Carlyle's. I know it in the above clause is the dummy subject, and the real subject is the that-clause. The whole sentence is not hard to understand in its current form. But I have some difficulty explaining the "of Thomas Carlyle" part grammatically in the above sentence. Is it a subject comple...Read more

Are these 'that'-clauses complements or adjuncts?

(1) It's a plan [that is being touted as the most modest proposal considered yet in Congress].Here, the that-clause is a relative clause that modifies the antecedent 'plan', so I believe it's not a complement but an adjunct. (Correct me if I'm wrong.)Now, I'm not sure whether the following that-clauses are complements or adjuncts: (2) It's unfortunate [that we meet under these circumstances]. (3) I have it on good authority [that you are in charge here]. (4) It's for that reason [that she is currently number one].In (2) and (3), the that...Read more

complements - Can adjectives make adjuncts modifying verbs?

Her teeth gleamed white against the tanned skin of her face.It seems ‘white’ is an adjunct modifying gleamed, while it’s not a complement for it’s not necessary to complete the meaning. But I’m wondering if adjectives can make adjuncts modifying verbs. My question are two: (1) Is ‘white’ a complement or an adjunct? (2) Can adjectives make adjuncts modifying verbs? (Even if the case is not an example of this question, would you let me know?)...Read more

complements - What is the difference complementing with prepositional phrase and with to-infinitive?

To-infinitive complements must be distinguished from PP complement with the preposition to. The following quotation illustrates the difference. The global threat to our security was clear. So was our duty to act to eliminate it. (Angela Downing, English Grammar): PP: prepositional phraseI don’t get what is the difference between complementing a noun with to-prepositional phrase and to-infinitive. Would you show me the difference?...Read more

complements - Is this a predicative adjunct?

At breakfast on Thursday she bored them all stupid with flying tips she'd gotten out of a library book called Quidditch Through the Ages. –– Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's StoneAs far as I understand from CGEL (p.251, 262~3), it seems like stupid is a predicative adjunct whose predicand is them all; while in Kim seemed uneasy, uneasy is the predicative complement. And stupid modifies the predicator, bored. Is this the correct interpretation?...Read more

complements - What is the grammatical function of the bold phrase in the sentence?

Some of the world's oldest preserved art is the cave art of Europe, most of it in Spain and France.The above sentence is from IELTS test reading passage, and it is oral English. I want to make sure that the grammatical function of 'most of it in Spain and France' in the sentence. In my opinion, it is a parenthesis, which is to add some new information to the main sentence. This is because there is a comma in front of it. But I am not sure if it's possible that it is the complement of the subject or not. So I need your kind help....Read more

How to distinguish the attribute & complement in a sentence?

As an example: In some cultures, people regard men as textbook says: ''as breadwinners'' is the complement to ''regard'', but I think it is the attribute to ''men''. Which one is correct?Also, can complements be used to describe verbs or other words? I only know they can be used to describe the subject and the object in a sentence....Read more

complements - Is it distransitive or complex transitive as in “She told her cat to leave”?

She told her cat to leave.Here are two kinds of parsing.1.Distransitive + indirect object and direct object She (S) + told (V) her cat (I.O) to leave (D.O)2.Complex transitive + direct object + object complement She (S) + told (V) her cat (D.O) + to leave (Objective complement)Could you tell me which is more close to modern English grammar?As far as I know, the former means "to leave" is nominal, but the latter "to leave" is adjectival....Read more

What distinguishes a predicative complement from an object?

Asked this on ELL but with no answer:What makes be an intransitive verb? How do we know that the analysis of It is me as transitive by tradtional grammars is incorrect?Take for example: 1. I gave an [dO apple] to [iO her] 2. It was her.In 1, gave is a transitive verb with the direct object "an apple" . In 2, it is argued that "her" is not an object because be is an intransitive verb (?), so "her" is not a direct object in 2, like it is in 1 (indirect object).And how does this analysis apply to other verbs, like hurt from the example below:How ...Read more

prepositional phrases - Is this 'of anything' a complement or adverbial?

Simon thereupon went to his father and said: “You are rich, batiushika [little father], but you have given nothing to me. Give me one-third of what you possess as my share, and I will transfer it to my estate.” The old man replied: “You did not help to bring prosperity to our household. For what reason, then, should you now demand the third part of everything? It would be unjust to Ivan and his sister.” “Yes,” said Simon; “but he is a fool, and she was born dumb. What need have they of anything?” -- Ivan the Fool, tr. by Count Norra...Read more

complements - 'Out to get me.'

"He was out to get me."'Out' is not a verb, so 'He was out' looks like subject/linking verb/PA, except that quite plainly 'out to get me' carries the full meaning, because 'He was out' on its own means one of several completely different things. How do you analyse a construction (and there are many) where a 'modifier' in fact changes the meaning completely? 'To get me' isn't just adverbial to 'out', it changes the meaning completely. And, yes, a lot of verbs work this way, where their meaning is only clear from their complement. But 'out' is mo...Read more