bio mechanics - Sanity check: 4D bio-wheels

In our 3D world, it is basically impossible to evolve living wheels, or helicopter rotors, or anything similar because free rotation of an axle dictates that there is no fixed connection to the body of the creature or machine--thus, there is no way to route nerves, blood vessels, etc.If you just want to rotate a compact object, though (not an axle or similar non-compact object that has significantly extent in one dimension beyond its attachment point), there are arrangements like this that allow you to do so. Adding an additional spatial dimens...Read more

bio mechanics - Highest bite force of a wolf?

Some sites say wolves can bite around 400 psi. But this site claims that when facing a peril they can deliver upto 1200 ? to the 'How does that measure compared to cousins in the wild?' portion to save time) -That's a huge range, and could in theory put them on par with big cats.Is what the site says true? -I looked online extensively in the internet but I only came across a reddit post where they discuss this and it wasn't conclusive.Why is there a maximum bite force of other animals like...Read more

bio mechanics - Any simulations of four-winged dinosaur flight? (microraptors)

This week's podcast of the BBC's Science in Action includes a section by Rory Galloway (12:20 to 18:30) covering the Dinosaurs of China exhibit currently hosted by Wollaton Hal at the University of Nottingham, and includes an interview with curator Dr. Adam Smith. The exhibit is of highly detailed dinosaur fossils from Liaoning, China where detailed feather structures were well preserved and have been analyzed in great detail.One section caught my attention: Rory Galloway: "The similarity between dinosaurs and birds was far more than superfici...Read more